By Anthony Maniscalco
Even with their public sights and hundreds of thousands of holiday makers, such a lot buying shops at the moment are off-limit....
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Additional info for Public Spaces, Marketplaces, and the Constitution: Shopping Malls and the First Amendment
35 As people and technological innovations continued to spread across Europe, marketplaces became permanent fixtures, though they remained fairly unstructured with respect to their spatiality and design. 36 These open markets were located within existing street grids. 38 No matter the circumstances that precipitated their physical arrangement, medieval towns sited their marketplaces within centers, where myriad activities converged. 39 The outcome of this built ecology was a kind of public mosaic, according to Mumford.
Buil t Environmen t s and t he Public Sphere 19 Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Rousseau went to extraordinary lengths to build his ideas of democracy and justice atop a visible and revelatory landscape. 16 In them, we find the transparency and trust critical to the creation of a democratic public sphere. But there are other uses for these abstract tools, and not a few totalitarian regimes in the 20th and 21st centuries have manipulated physical space, discerned dissent made visible inside, and then revealed their own sovereignty to the body politic forced to inhabit it.
27 These notions suggest an intimate connection between public landscape and popular sovereignty, such as the links observed by Tocqueville, and later by Dewey. 28 It is the civic production of spaces that makes them both public and genuine in this view. And it is unanticipated negotiations within those public spaces that can interrupt political inertia by stemming the kinds of passive spectatorship in the civic sphere that works against democratic association. Without active authentication of public spaces, civic capacity is less likely to develop organically outside state institutions; community is weakened, leaving individuals or groups marginalized by dominant political processes vulnerable to the weight of majoritarianism, ideological orthodoxy, and exclusion.