By Harry Austryn Wolfson
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Additional info for Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam (Volumes 1 and 2)
Of Protagoras, whom he describes as a very wise man (7r&
Congr. 1 1 , 57; cf. Heres 9,45; Somn. 1,23,151. This non-mythical conception of Hades as referring to punishments for crime as well as to tortures of conscience in this world reflects the view of ancient moral philosophers (cf. Hans Lewy's note to Congr. 1 1 , 57, in Philos Werke, VI, p. 19, n. 3, referring to Lucretius, III, 978 ff. and Heinze in his commentary ad loc). It must, however, be added that, in addition to a Hades in this life, Philo also believed in the punishment of the wicked after death (cf.
Ralph Marcus, in his "Divine Names and Attributes in Hellenistic Jewish Literature," Proceedings of the Ameri can Academy for Jewish Research, 3 (1931-32), pp. , pp. 47-48). No proper name of any deity is found among them. Wisdom of Solomon 1 4 : 1 2 . w III Mace. 4 : 1 6 ; cf. ei&bXott dXdXoun in Sibylline Oracles IV, 7; III, 30; cf. Habakkuk 2 : 1 8 . w Sibylline Oracles V, 3 1 ; cf. Aristeas, 134. » Wisdom of Solomon 1 3 : 1 0 ; cf. Ps. 106: 28. Wisdom of Solomon 14: 8; 1 3 : 1 0 ; cf. Septuagint Isa.