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Bankruptcy one encompasses a distinctive account of achievements on infrequent earth established man made multilayered buildings. the big physique of experimental effects that experience develop into to be had for the various intermetallic compounds during which infrequent earths are mixed with 3d transition metals is defined within the moment bankruptcy.
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The present chapter takes a new look at an old problem, utilizing X-ray spectroscopy and microscopy methods that have only recently been developed. The spectromicroscopy approach, utilized here, combines two well-established concepts, polarized X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and electron microscopy [20, 21]. It has many key strengths needed ultimately to solve the exchange bias puzzle. Because of the elemental and chemical speciﬁcity of XAS, one can tune into speciﬁc layers by tuning the photon energy.