Metallurgy

Handbook of Workability and Process Design by George E. Dieter, S. Lee Semiatin, Howard A. Kuhn

By George E. Dieter, S. Lee Semiatin, Howard A. Kuhn

Textual content is an replace and enlargement of a prior ebook, 'Workability checking out Techniques,' released via the yank Society for Metals, c1984. contains contributions describing a number of workability checks. For practitioners. DLC: Metals--Formability--Testing.

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1) at room temperature, but m increases with temperature. 2 are common in metals. Polymers have much higher values of m and may approach m = 1 in room-temperature tests for some polymers. The temperature dependence of flow stress can be represented by: s = C2eQ/RTΩe, e˙ (Eq. 987 cal/ K·mol; and T is testing temperature in degree Kelvin. From Eq 33, a plot of ln s versus 1/T gives a straight line with a slope Q/R. Constitutive equations are mathematical expressions that relate the stress in terms of the variable strain, strain rate, and temperature.

Namic recrystallization, metadynamic recrystallization, static recovery, static recrystallization, and grain growth (Ref 1, 2). Dynamic Recovery and Recrystallization. As its name implies, dynamic recovery and recrystallization occurs during hot working. As metals are worked, defects are generated in the crystal lattice. The most important defects are line defects known as dislocations. As deformation increases, the deformation resistance increases due to increasing dislocation content. However, the dislocation density does not increase without limit because of the occurrence of dynamic recovery and dynamic recrystallization.

The yield stress and the flow stress at lower values of plastic strain are more affected by strain rate than the tensile strength. If the crosshead velocity, v, of the testing machine is v = dL/dt, then the strain rate expressed in terms of conventional engineering strain, e˙, is: (Eq 27) de d ( L - L0 ) / L0 v 1 dL = = = dt dt L0 dt L0 (Eq 29) The engineering strain rate is proportional to the crosshead velocity. In a modern testing machine in which the crosshead velocity can be set accurately and controlled, it is a simple matter to carry out tension tests at a constant engineering strain rate.

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