Evolution

Evolution of Karst in the Lower Part of Crna Reka River by Marjan Temovski

By Marjan Temovski

This thesis addresses karst improvement in a terrain characterised by means of a hugely complicated geological and geomorphological evolution. It tackles the level and complexity of either epigenic and hypogenic karst improvement, in line with morphological analyses of caves, mixed with analyses and datations of cave sediments and their correlation to neighborhood geological and geomorphological evolution.

Hypogenic karst registered is especially the results of hydrothermal speleogenesis because of elevated geothermal gradient in reference to within reach Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic facilities, with prevalence of sulfuric acid speleogenesis and ghost-rock weathering as a result of neighborhood geological or lithological keep watch over. Epigenic speleogenesis is strongly managed by means of base point oscillations, with additionally examples of deep phreatic (now fossil) caves hooked up to neighborhood base point upward thrust, and per-ascensum speleogenesis.

Another vital discovering is the constraining of the timing of Mariovo Lake draining within the Pleistocene, an immense occasion with the intention to comprehend the geomorphological evolution in Macedonia, because it ended in the onset of fluvial improvement and incision of valleys, shaping lots of the current morphology.

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Kranjc, A. ) (2005). Udin Boršt. Kraške kulturne pokrajine: edinstveni odnos med človekom in kraškim svetom, Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia, Montebelluna, 102 pp. , & Lundberg, J. (2000). Meso and micromorphology of caves. In A. Klimchouk, D. C. Ford, A. N. Palmer, & W. ), Speleogenesis: Evolution of karst aquifers (pp. 407–426). Huntsville: National Speleological Society. Manakovik, D. (1971). Podzemni karstni oblici vo porečieto na Kamenica so karsna hidrografija. Godišen Zbornik, Geografski Institut, Skopje, 19, 41–59.

1965; Rakićević et al. 1965; Rakićević and 38 3 Methodology Pendžerkovski 1970), as well as unpublished geological maps in 1:25,000 scale (Geological survey Skopje) using Global Mapper software. Aster GDEM data, version 2 (Meyer et al. 2012), was used for terrain analysis and representation in maps. Digitized data was used to produce geological, karst, and general geographical maps of the research area. Data from geological maps were also used to interpret extension of paleovalleys in Vitačevo plateau.

1 Concepts of vertical cave development: Left The Four State Model by Ford and Ewers (1978); Right Vertical cave patterns by Audra and Palmer (2013) frequency. The initial fissure frequency is low, but increases with time and fractures become wider due to stress release as a result of erosional unloading and cave development. In state 1 due to low fissure frequency, a bathyphreatic cave is developed with few phreatic loops that extend deep below the water table. With the increase of fissure frequency, a multi-loop phreatic cave develops (state 2) with shallower loops and water table drops with increase of permeability.

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