Agricultural Sciences

Emerging Technologies to Benefit Farmers in Sub-Saharan by National Research Council (U. S.)

By National Research Council (U. S.)

Elevated agricultural productiveness is an important stepping stone at the course out of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, yet farmers there face large demanding situations enhancing creation. bad soil, inefficient water use, and a scarcity of entry to plant breeding assets, nutritious animal feed, prime quality seed, and gas and electrical energy - mixed with probably the most severe environmental stipulations in the world - have made yields in crop and animal construction some distance reduce in those areas than international averages."Emerging applied sciences to profit Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia" identifies sixty rising applied sciences with the capability to seriously increase agricultural productiveness in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Eighteen applied sciences are suggested for instant improvement or extra exploration. Scientists from all backgrounds have a chance to get involved in bringing those and different applied sciences to fruition. The possibilities prompt during this booklet provide new ways that may synergize with one another and with many different actions to rework agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

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Extra info for Emerging Technologies to Benefit Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia

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Tier I Technologies Plant-mediated gene silencing. One of the most exciting developments in plant biology in recent years was the discovery of various types of small RNA molecules that play key roles in plant development and resistance to stresses. The discovery enables researchers to design and overexpress genes encoding RNAs which can target and silence critical genes that are unique to pests or pathogens; pests and pathogens receive gene-silencing RNAs by interacting with the host plant. Research strongly suggests that plant-mediated delivery of RNAs can be used to control viruses, nematodes, and some insects, and they may also find applications for use against parasitic plants and fungi.

Such applications, which will have a high payoff for farmers in the regions, can be built on technological platforms and knowledge that have, in most cases, proved to be effective, but building them will be unique and challenging endeavors. TABLE S-1 Priority Technologies and Applications for Improving Agriculture Focus of Technology Tier I High Priority for Development Natural Resources Management · Soil management techniques · Integrated water management · Climate and weather prediction Improving Genetics of Crops and Animals · Annotated crop genomes · Genome-based animal breeding Overcoming Biotic Constraints · · · · Energy Production Tier II High Priority for Additional Exploration · Soil-related nanomaterials · Manipulation of the rhizosphere · Remote sensing of plant physiology · Site-specific gene integration · Spermatagonial stem cell transplantation · Microbial genomics of the rumen Plant-mediated gene silencing Biocontrol and biopesticides Disease-suppressive soils Animal vaccines · Solar energy technologies · Photosynthetic microbe-based biofuels · Energy storage technology Tier II technologies include ideas that are emerging from advances in biology, chemistry, materials, remote sensing, and energy science that have important implications for agriculture.

All rights reserved. html 18 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Emerging Technologies to Benefit Farmers in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia Bt alternatives Transgenic sentinels of plant physiology Chemical-induced switching Classical biological control Biopesticides Genetically engineered biocontrol—suicide-inducing genes On-farm integrated water management Water storage Wastewater reclamation Desalination Cloud seeding Weather and climate forecasting—data capture and modeling Soil management practices —Increasing carbon in soil for productivity and carbon sequestration —Improving soil-nutrient budget —Soil-water conservation practices Remote sensing of plant physiology for nutrient management and soil quality Zeolites and synthesized nanomaterials Root improvement through breeding and biotechnology Transgenic nitrogen fixation in non-legumes Rhizosphere manipulation —Phytostimulators —Disease-suppressive soil —Biological nitrogen fixation —Microbial enhancement of phosphorus uptake by crops Microbe-enhanced drought tolerance Improving grass and legume forage Rumen metagenomics Molecular breeding for animal improvement Engineering animals for disease resistance —use of transgenes —use of RNAi to target animal viruses Spermatagonial stem cell transplantation Improving neonatal passive immunity Animal vaccines (bacteria-, plant-, DNA-based) Rapid diagnosis and surveillance of disease Hydro, wind, geothermal, wave, and tidal power Solar photovoltaic Concentrated solar (solar-thermal) energy Energy storage (supercapacitors) Hydrogen and fuel cells Biofuels (cellulosic, halophytes, oilseeds, photosynthetic microorganisms) PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.

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