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Emerging Neurological Infections (Neurological Disease and by Christopher Power, Richard T. Johnson

By Christopher Power, Richard T. Johnson

Supplying a transparent and authoritative evaluation of modern advancements in microbiology and neuroscience, this reference describes elements contributing to the emergence and resurgence of neurological infections-studying either new and drug-resistant pathogens, in addition to long term prevention and keep an eye on innovations for those illnesses.

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Extra resources for Emerging Neurological Infections (Neurological Disease and Therapy)

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These elements 1 2 Domingo share with retroviruses a reverse transcription step but lack an envelope gene and an extracellular step in their life cycle. Animal and plant species vary in their content of different types of transposons and other mobile elements, but current findings suggest that genetic elements that once probably had partly autonomous life cycles became integral parts of complex genomes (3). Truly genetically identical individuals are probably rare in nature. Most remarkable for the adaptive potential of pathogens is that the genetic variation observed is often associated with biological (phenotypic or behavioral) variation.

These early studies documented also a high complexity (meaning in this case digit complexity that refers to the presence of multiple genomic nucleotide sequences) in phage populations. Despite a clonal origin, the “wild type” (unmutated) genome represented at most 20% of the viral genomes that composed the populations examined (28,82,83). The phage genome had to be described as being “in a dynamic equilibrium” and consisting of a “weighted average of a large number of different individual sequences” (83).

This scheme applies to many selective pressures discussed throughout this article. genetic variation, competition, and selection, which have shaped all life forms as we know them on earth, underlie survival of pathogens, and the replacement of some forms of pathogens by others. Hypermutated measles virus finds a suitable niche in the human brain for replication to cause subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and waves of influenza are often associated with antigenic variants of influenza virus [reassortants in antigenic “shift” and mutants in antigenic “drift” (Sec.

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