By N. Silvis-Cividjian
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Additional info for Electron-Beam-Induced Nanometer-Scale Deposition
1989, AVS The Science & Technology Society. e. Deposit 3D Nanostructures. , 1994). A smaller penetration range of ions compared with electrons also enables the fabrication of complex 3D structures using IBID, pushing the application area to the fascinating world of nanostructure plastic art (Figure 12)! In Figure 13, the beam is scanned in digital mode. First a pillar is formed with the beam in position 1. The beam is then moved within the diameter of the pillar and fixed there until the terrace formed has a thickness exceeding the ion range a few tens of nm.
Experiments done by Bruk et al. (2005) with Fe3(CO)12 confirm this dependence of resistivity on beam current. When the beam current increased by a factor of two, the resistivity decreased by four orders of magnitude, with the best value for the resistivity being 4 Â 10À2 Á cm. All deposited lines showed a decreasing resistance with increasing temperature, indicating nonmetallic conduction. The reason for this dependence on the beam current density has not been discovered yet. The resistivity of the deposited lines also depends on the beam scanning conditions—the exposure dose per pixel (C/m2) and the dwell and loop 42 SILVIS-CIVIDJIAN AND HAGEN times.
Loop time (tl). The loop time depends on the deposited area and on the exposure strategy: tl ¼ td Â L Â W ðD Â ð1 À OLÞÞ2 ; ð1Þ where D is the beam diameter, L and W are the length and width of the pattern, respectively, and OL is the overlap. The most common patterns to be deposited are dots, lines, and rectangles. They can be obtained by simply using the imaging scan generator available in any SEM to raster the beam. The deflection can also be made by a function generator with fast rastering, but with reduced patterning capabilities and 18 SILVIS-CIVIDJIAN AND HAGEN no blanking.