Science General

Códices Madrid I by Leonardo da Vinci

By Leonardo da Vinci

Описание: В 1966 году в Национальной библиотеке в Мадриде были обнаружены два манускрипта, написанные Леонардо. Когда-то они не были учтены при каталогизации, и об их существовании не было известно. Этим двум манускриптам дали условные названия «Мадридский кодекс I» и «Мадридский кодекс II».
«Мадридский кодекс I» состоит из 192 листов 1490—1499 годов написания, содержащих изображения различных механизмов и изложения теории механики. Хотя работа и посвящена механике, в ней есть заметки по астрономии и по оптике.
«Мадридский кодекс II» был создан Леонардо в 1503—1505 гг. и состоит из 158 листов. Он собрал исследования в области геометрии, такие, например, как «квадратуры круга». Кроме этого, в нём содержатся работы по перспективе и оптике. В книге можно найти эскизы морских и топографических карт, рассматриваются проблемы военной техники и архитектуры. Самое интересное в этом кодексе — неосуществлённый проект изменения русла реки Арно, эскизы фрески «Битва при Ангиари» и конного памятника Франческо Сфорца.

Show description

Read or Download Códices Madrid I PDF

Best science (general) books

Spatial Cognition: Foundations and Applications : Selected Papers from Mind III, Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society of Ireland, 1998 (Advances in Consciousness Research)

Spatial Cognition brings jointly psychology, computing device technological know-how, linguistics and geography, discussing how humans take into consideration house (our inner cognitive maps and spatial belief) and the way we converse approximately house, for example giving path instructions or utilizing spatial metaphors. The technological functions including dynamism to the world contain machine interfaces, academic software program, multimedia, and in-car navigation platforms.

Business Networks in Japan: Supplier-Customer Interaction in Product Development (Routledge Advances in Asia-Pacific Business, 3)

The notable luck of jap has usually been attributed to the inter-corporate alliances and networks that exist within the jap economic climate. Many commentators argue that's has been those networks which were key to either the fast development and good fortune of eastern undefined. enterprise Networks in Japan explores the construction of supplier-customer networks via case reviews of 2 of Japan's greatest businesses: the Toshiba company and the Nippon metal company.

Cell Polarity

Few cells comply with the stereotype of the round blob rapidly scribbled on chalkboards and, unfortunately, occasionally even displayed prominently in textbooks. in its place, actual cells show a impressive measure of structural and sensible asymmetry. In sleek mobilephone organic parlance, this asymmetry has become lumped lower than the final heading of "cell polarity".

Observing Land from Space: Science, Customers and Technology (Advances In Global Change Research Volume 4) (Advances in Global Change Research)

This quantity bargains a large assessment of the technological know-how and expertise of distant sensing, its coverage implications, and the desires of operational clients within the context of weather switch and environmental degradation over land. a few of the chapters derive from shows initially made on the first ENAMORS convention on Optical distant Sensing of Terrestrial Surfaces: New Sensors, complicated Algorithms, and the chance for Novel functions, held in Tuusula, Finland, in September 1997.

Additional info for Códices Madrid I

Sample text

And Mearns, L. 0. in Waggoner, P. (1990). S. Water Resources, pp. 41-73. Wiley, New York. S. H. SCHNEIDER 28 w 5 I a z 94k! OG0C/decade) - I- < . *. j o ,;<~+~&: J - ; * a- . ** *. (..... * ,* Fig. 9. Three scenarios for global surface air temperature change to the year 2100 derived from combining uncertainties in future trace greenhouse gas projections with uncertainties of modeling the climatic response to those projections. Sustained global temperature changes beyond 2°C would be unprecendented during the era of human civilization.

L. E. (1987). Monsoon variability over the past 15OOOO years. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 8411-8425. Ramanathan, V. and Collins, W. (1991). Thermodynamic regulation of Ocean warming by cirrus clouds deduced from observations of the 1987 El Niiio. Nature 351, 27-32. Raval, A. and Ramanathan, V. (1989). Observational determination of the greenhouse effect. Nature 342, 758. S. H. , and Peteet, D. (1986). H. ”. Climatic Change 9,357-360. , Goldberg, R. and Ruedy, R. (1989). Change in climate variability in the 21st century.

1989). One of the principal methods of model validation is to compare control run results with observational data sets. Because of the coarse resolution of GCMs, and because the output from the model runs is generated at each grid point only, it is not always appropriate to compare the results directly with station observations of climate variables. , 1985,1986). The preparation of gridded data sets for parameters such as precipitation and wind-speed is constrained by the lack of comprehensive observations over the ocean.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.95 of 5 – based on 24 votes