By American Society of Metals
This ebook bargains a set of ASM guide articles on how engineering plastics are characterised by way of homes and function. It methods the topic of characterization from a normal perspective of engineering layout, fabrics choice, and failure research. the 1st part int
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Additional info for Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics
Hot creep is the deformation of plastics exposed to stress and elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. Polyethylenes used in wire coating are frequently cross linked for this reason. Supermolecular Considerations Supermolecular considerations include copolymerization, polymer blends, plasticization, incorporation of additives, and foaming. Copolymerization. Copolymers are polymer molecules that contain several different repeat units. Usually two monomers are polymerized into one of four different configurations: random, alternating, block, or graft (Fig.
Rotomolding and other low-shear processes produce little orientation. Intermolecular Attractions. Secondary intermolecular attractive forces that promote crystallinity include London dispersion forces, dipole forces (either induced or permanent), Fig. 10 Intermolecular order in polymers. (a) Amorphous. (b) Semicrystalline. (c) Uniaxial orientation. 965 g/cm3 Crystallinity, 42–53 54–63 64–80 approximate % 110–120 120–130 130–136 Melting temperature (Tm), °C Hardness, 41–46 50–60 60–70 Shore D Tensile 97–260 170–380 410–1240 modulus, MPa Source: Ref 19 Fig.
Some additives such as colorants, antioxidants, Fig. 12 Cross-linked polymer 38 / Introduction and thermal stabilizers, do not affect the mechanical properties, but may influence viscosity during processing. In contrast, mineral fillers and glass or carbon fibers affect both mechanical properties and processibility. Fillers such as talc, calcium carbonate, and silica often reduce cost and increase the modulus, melt viscosity, and the deflection temperature under load. While fibers can significantly improve mechanical properties, their performance depends on orientation and fiber length, both of which can be affected by processing.