By Robert Audi
* short intro to idea of knowledge/epistemology.
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Extra resources for Belief, Justification, and Knowledge: an Introduction to Epistemology
My own initial reaction to realizing I had hallucinated the tree might be that, hallucination or no, I saw it. But I might as easily slump back in my chair and mumble that I wish I had seen it. We might agree that I saw it (vividly) in my mind's eye. But suppose I did sec it in my mind's eye, and again suppose that the hallucination is intrinsically just like the ordinary seeing. Does it follow that what I directly sec in the hallucination is the same, namely, something in my mind's eye? It does not.
I SOME COMMONSENSE VIEWS OF PERCEPTION One natural thing to say about what it is for me to see the blue spruce is that I simply see it, at least in that I see its facing surface. It is near and squarely before me. I need no light to penetrate a haze or telescope to magnify my view. I simply SOME COMMONSENS&iVIEWS OF PERCEPTION 15 see the tree, and it is as it appears. This sort of view—thought to represent untutored common sense—has been called naive realism. It is naive because it ignores problems of a kind to be described in a moment; it is a form of realism because it takes the objects of perception to be real things external to the perceiver, the sorts of things that are there to be seen whether anyone sees them or not.
The planting is then the causal ground of your memory belief, as it is of mine, and we both remember my planting it. But suppose I had forgotten the event and thus no longer believed I planted the tree, then later came to believe, solely on the basis of your testimony, that I planted it, There is still a causal chain from my present belief back to the planting; for the planting produced your belief, which in a way produced your testimony, which in turn produced my present belief. But die memorial chain in me was broken by my forgetting.