By Martin Vömel, Dieter Zastrow
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Bankruptcy one includes a distinctive account of achievements on infrequent earth dependent synthetic multilayered constructions. the big physique of experimental effects that experience turn into to be had for the various intermetallic compounds during which infrequent earths are mixed with 3d transition metals is defined within the moment bankruptcy.
Extra resources for Aufgabensammlung Elektrotechnik, Bd.2, Magnetisches Feld und Wechselstrom
It is noteworthy to mention that a further step in the reactive deposition procedure is represented by the use of more reactive oxidizing agents like atomic oxygen or NO2 [1, 20, 21]. It has been reported that this procedure signiﬁcantly improves the ﬁlm quality mainly in terms of interface sharpness, surface ﬂatness, and substrate wettability even at the lowest coverages. Relevant recent examples refer to the preparation of NiO  and FeO  ﬁlms. 1 Introduction As mentioned before, the availability of more and more sophisticated and reliable characterization methods and apparatus was a key factor in pushing both fundamental and technological activities on magnetic ﬁlms in general and oxide AF ﬁlms in particular.
W. (1985) Band gaps and electronic structure of transition-metal compounds. Phys. Rev. Lett, 55, 418. W. (1959) New approach to the theory of superexchange interactions. Phys. Rev, 115, 2. Zaanen, J. A. (1987) The electronic structure and superexchange interactions in transition-metal compounds. Can. J. Phys, 65, 1262. H. (1988) Theory of superexchange in antiferromagnetic insulators. J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys, 21, L193. M. M. (1983) Conductivity and ‘negative U’ for ionic grain boundaries. J.
Appl. Phys. Lett, 77, 1020. 1 Introduction Because of the challenging fundamental electronic properties, of the potential applications in different areas ranging from catalysis to spin electronics and of their signiﬁcant role in the chemical and physical processes taking place in the ecosystem, there is a steadily growing interest in the research on metal-oxides [1–4]. From the magnetic point of view, much of the past and current efforts have focused on binary metal-oxide (Mex Oy ) thin ﬁlms containing 3d transition metals like Mn, Fe, Co, or Ni, because of their importance in magnetic devices technology.