By Asm International Handbook Committee, Peter W. Lee
Covers all parts of powder creation, sampling, characterization, shaping, consolidation, sintering, quality controls, machining, warmth treating, and PM purposes. For sensible engineering details on sintering practices, software layout, P/M metallography, dimensional keep watch over, half layout, powders, binders, lubricants, and the processing, houses, and function of P/M fabrics in several creation applied sciences and functions.
Read or Download ASM Handbook: Volume 7: Powder Metal Technologies and Applications (Asm Handbook) (Asm Handbook) (Asm Handbook) PDF
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Extra info for ASM Handbook: Volume 7: Powder Metal Technologies and Applications (Asm Handbook) (Asm Handbook) (Asm Handbook)
Due to the vertical closure of the tooling and the lack of tool motions perpendicular to the pressing direction, part removal from the tools controls many features. Examples of features that cannot be accommodated in die compaction, and therefore require secondary machining operations, include undercuts, reverse taper (larger on bottom than on top), annular grooves, and threads. The specific design issues for the powder process technologies would require an extensive discussion well beyond the limits of this article.
In this process a loose powder is blended to the desired composition and pressed to a forging preform having the general shape of the final component. Powder forging has proven to be competitive when the overall economics are improved through some combination of enhanced machining characteristics, mechanical properties, and dimensional or weight tolerances. It was initially believed that P/F products would displace a wide variety of conventionally processed P/M parts, as well as a significant number of conventional forgings.
The THP technique has been used to improve the processibility of alloys such as Ti-6Al-4V and to refine the microstructure with a concurrent enhancement in crack-initiation-related properties such as fatigue. Preliminary studies have shown that the THP approach can also be used to refine the microstructure of Ti3Al-type alloys, and the technique is being used on a pilot-plant basis at the All Union Institute for Light Alloys Moscow, Russia, to improve processibility. Because of the conventionally very low solubility for hydrogen in TiAl-base alloys, use of innovative techniques such as RS are required in combination with THP.