By Ron G. Manley (auth.), Joseph F. Bunnett, Marian Mikołajczyk (eds.)
More than ten million `poison fuel' shells, mortar bombs, etc., lie hidden in Europe, lots of them relics from international struggle I. a few have been fired and didn't detonate, others have been deserted in previous ammunition dumps. so much keep their load of chemical war (CW) brokers. they're grew to become up day-by-day during farming and building. Many ecu countries have everlasting departments curious about their assortment and destruction.
outdated munitions, while found, are typically seriously corroded and tough to spot. Is it a CW munition? Or an explosive? If CW, what agent does it comprise? as soon as pointed out, one has to pick a destruction approach. many of the tools which have been proposed are under excellent, and are frequently advanced via the presence of extraneous chemical compounds, both combined with the CW brokers in the course of manufacture or shaped over a long time within the flooring.
Of specific curiosity are the insiders' studies at the German CW programmes of either international Wars, and the present prestige of Russian chemical armaments.
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Extra info for Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and ‘Mustard’ Munitions
In some cases, samples of liquid munition contents are taken by drilling into it with a hollow drill. ) be available so that any suspect material can be identified. The chosen dismantling techniques will be all the more effective if they are applied to well defined families of objects. The creation of a data base with information on all munitions used as well as their characteristics is nearly completed. 3. Storage Before destruction, the munitions are stored in concrete hangars, which are sealed and equipped with filtration systems to counter both chemical and explosive hazards.
18 It is interesting to note that, between the two wars, 1400 products were tested in France and 2 were finally selected. The total number of substances examined by the world's chemists for possible use as attack agents, since 1915, which is 81 years ago, has been estimated at 12,000. The reason for this meagre outcome, in relation to the effort expended, is to be found in the numerous requirements that a chemical product has to meet before being considered as a war toxic with a reasonable chance of successful use.
5. ELECTROCHEMICAL DISSOLUTION A variant of chemical etching, electrochemical dissolution based on the principle of the dissolving anode, being a carefully selected part of the munition, offers the theoretical advantage of a wide choice of electrolytes (acids, neutrals or bases) whose composition may neutralise or even destroy the explosives and/or chemical agents. This technique enables the casing to be penetrated in complete safety and it can be adapted to all situations that do not lend themselves to the USe of conventional opening techniques.