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Applied scanning probe methods 2. Scanning probe microscopy by Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs, Masahiko Tomitori

By Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs, Masahiko Tomitori

Volumes II, III and IV learn the actual and technical beginning for fresh development in utilized near-field scanning probe innovations, and construct upon the 1st quantity released in early 2004. the sphere is progressing so quick that there's a want for a moment set of volumes to seize the newest advancements. It constitutes a well timed finished evaluation of SPM purposes, now that business functions span topographic and dynamical floor reviews of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and organic fabrics. quantity II introduces scanning probe microscopy, together with sensor expertise, quantity III covers the entire diversity of characterization percentages utilizing SPM and quantity IV deals chapters on makes use of in quite a few commercial purposes. The foreign standpoint provided in those 3 volumes - which belong jointly - contributes additional to the evolution of SPM techniques.

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X˙ N ⎤⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ x1 b1 ··· 0 · · · 0 ⎥ ⎢ x2 ⎥ ⎢ b2 ⎥ ⎥⎢ . ⎥ + ⎢ . ⎥u . ⎦⎣ . ⎦ ⎣ . ⎦ . . 0 0 AN xN bN 0 A2 .. 22) 1 Higher Harmonics in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy 11 The output matrix C describes the combination of the system states yielding the output vector with the tip displacement y1 and the deflection readout y2 . For the individual eigenmodes, the contribution to the total output is given by Cn = ϕn (ξtip ) 0 ϕn (ξsens ) 0 . 23) Here, ξtip = 1 and ξsens = 1 are the positions of the tip and the detection laser along the cantilever, respectively.

In this case the oscillation amplitude is given by A0 = Q Ad . 8) b introducing the state vector x = [x, x] ˙ T , the system matrix A and the input vector b. Generally speaking, the SDOF approximation holds as long as there are only small contributions to the system dynamics at frequencies higher than the fundamental resonance frequency [56]. However, the approximation completely fails to predict the system characteristics at higher frequencies such as those of higher harmonics or of a chaotic response.

To avoid an unphysical divergence, the parameter a0 is introduced, corresponding to the interatomic distance [54]. 14) √ ⎩ −HR/6a2 + 4 E ∗ R (a0 − z s − z)3/2 D < a0 0 3 where H is the Hamaker constant and R the radius of the tip. The effective contact −1 stiffness is calculated from E ∗ = 1 − νt2 /E t + 1 − νs2 /E s , where E t and E s are the respective elastic moduli and νt and νs the Poisson ratios of the tip and the sample, respectively. It should be mentioned that the choice of bulk material parameters for the nanoscale simulations can only be a crude estimation.

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