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Antibiotic resistance : causes and risk factors, mechanisms by Adriel R. Bonilla

By Adriel R. Bonilla

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The EU-funded project ‘‘Biosafety Evaluation of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria used for Human Consumption’’ was carried out from January 2002 to June 2006. The overall objective of this project was to propose recommendations for an evidence-based safety assessment of probiotics for human use. Antibiotic susceptibility and the possibility of horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transmission were studied to determine the safety of probiotics. , 2008). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO) have been collaborating to establish standard procedures for the evaluation and labeling of probiotics in foods.

Gollrdge et al. (1990) isolated vancomycin-resistant Pediococcus acidilactici, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and E. rhusiopathiae from multiple blood cultures taken from a leukemic patient with septicemia. Additionally, the isolation of vancomycin-resistant lactobacilli probiotics, specifically L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum and L. , 2005). It is well-known that bacterial translocation results in various negative clinical infections to the host. However, antibiotic-resistant probiotic translocation is even more detrimental to the health of the patient than the translocation of endogenous bacteria.

2006). , 2008). Intergenera and interspecies differences and the species-dependency of Lactobacillus spp. antibiotic resistance have been well-documented. Species of the Lactobacillus group (L. acidophilus, L. gasseri, L. crispatus, L. johnsonii, L. delbrueckii and L. , 2007). The vancomycin resistance appeared to be strain-specific, in which the MIC for L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum and L. paracasei was more than 256 µg/ml, while it was less than 2 µg/ml for L. acidophilus (Danielsen and Wind, 2003).

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