By Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun
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Extra resources for Alkali-activated cements and concretes
A high content of MgO is often detected because refractory material comes into the slag, which also causes soundness problems of steel slag. 7 Relationship between residual lime, precipitated lime and total lime content in steel slag (Wachsmuth et al. 1980). 1995, Geiseler 1996). The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario, Canada, banned the use of steel slag in asphalt concrete on provincial highways in 1993 because of the soundness problem. 5 Cementing properties of steel slag The presence of C3 S, C2 S, C4 AF and C2 F contributes to the cementitious property of steel furnace slag.
However, the chemical composition of slag varies with ores and furnace operation, and may vary within a wide range. 1 Optimal chemical composition of slags (% by mass) (Osborn et al. 1954) No. 2 Chemical composition of blast furnace slag from several countries in the world (% by mass) SiO2 Al 2 O3 Fe2 O3 CaO MgO Na2 O K2 O S 35 04 13 91 0 29 39 43 6 13 0 34 35 3 99 36 23 9 76 36 9 35 4 12 9 35 13 5 35 3 94 06 1 99 13 03 23 11 34 7 39 4 41 41 8 36 5 39 7 14 6 0 3 10 5 8 6 8 0 26 75 10 03 0 98 34 9 1 02 42 87 10 30 0 24 1 17 41 6 34 2 7 12 11 3 8 21 0 26 TiO2 MnO Origin Reference 0 39 0 44 0 42 0 43 Australia Collins and Sanjayan (2001a) 04 10 05 Canada Shi (1992) 07 China Shi et al.
Thus, Ti does not have a significant effect on hydraulic reactivity of the slag when TiO2 content is less than 4%. The Chinese national standard GB203 (1992) limits the TiO2 content to less than 10%. The selectivity of activator is actually an indication of compatibility between chemical composition of the slag and activator(s) (Shi and Day 1996c). In order to examine how activator and the chemical composition of slag affect the strength of alkali-activated slag cement, eighteen vitreous materials from CaO−Al2 O3 −SiO2 system, eight from CaO−MgO− Al2 O3 −SiO2 system, and three from CaO−Al2 O3 −SiO2 −TiO2 system have been synthesized (Glukhovsky and Raksha 1979).