By Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)
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Additional info for Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32
The uncorrected spectra are often characterized by a decay coefficient distinctly higher than the most often observed value of 2. , 1990). The simplest and most often used spectral model is that described by the lowfrequency spectral level R, and the corner frequency f,, above which the spectrum is assumed to fall off as a second power of the frequency (Aki, 1967; Brune, 1970, 1971). , 1983). For this reason Snoke (1987) has recently proposed replacingf, as a spectral observable by a parameter which can be determined reliably, providing a more robust procedure than that conventionally used.
13 indicates the motion on a normal fault at the source of a tremor in an underground copper mine, believed to be typical for underground mining under tensional conditions. In Fig. 14 two possible fault-plane solutions are presented for a tremor induced by surface mining. The second solution corresponding to the motion on a reverse fault is thought to be a more plausible representation of unloading effects corresponding to surface mining in a compressional environment. The main difficulty in routine focal mechanism analyses, especially for small tremors, is insufficient coverage of the focal sphere by observations for obtaining meaningful solutions.
A constant stress-drop scaling model has been confirmed by innumerable studies and has become an accepted model for large and moderate earthquakes. , 1987) and for the aftershocks with magnitudes down to 2 near the Norwegian coast (Chael and Kromer, 1988). The constant stress-drop model implies a self-similar rupture process regardless of the scale of the seismic events. , 1977). In Fig. 29, reproduced from Spottiswoode (1984), seismic moment as a function of the corner frequency is shown for mine tremors in South Africa.