Metallurgy

Advanced Metallization & Interconnect Systems for Ulsi by Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo

By Robert Havemann, John Schmitz, Hiroshi Komiyama, Kazuo Tsubouchi

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2+ Figure 2-4. The bis(ethylenediamine)lauratecobalt(rrI) hexafluorophosphate complex. r Figure 2-5. The bis(ethylenediamine)dodecyloxysalicylaldehydechromium(~~ I) hexafluorophosphate complex. Further examples of compounds in which metal complexes form the polar head group of an amphiphilic molecule are based on bipyridine ruthenium(r1) o r rhodium(rr1) complexes (Fig. 2-6). The two types of derivative mainly show cubic (I1) and hexagonal (HI) phases respectively, before an isotropic solution is formed in water.

1- 15 c, e) and tilted (Fig. 1-1 5 c- e) columnar mesophases are possible. The lamellar discotic phase (DL) is defined as a smectic-like organization of molecules. It has been suggested that the molecules are tilted with respect to the layers, but this point does not appear to have been established unequivocally (Fig. 1-16) [31]. Dh (C) Dr (a Dtet (e) Figure 1-15. Schematic representation of five discotic phases: a) N,, nematic discotic; b) N,, columnar nematic; c) D,, discotic hexagonal; d) D,, discotic rectangular, e) D,,,, discotic tetragonal.

Wunderlich and J. Grebowicz, Adv. Polym. Sci. 1984, 60/61, 2. [20] H. Ringsdorf, B. Schlarb and J. Venzmer, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1988, 27, 113. [21] a) A. Leadbetter, Crit. Rep. Appl. Chem. A. Osman, Z. Naturforsch. 1983, 382, 693; c) J. Simon, J. J. Andre and A. Skoulios, New J. Chem. 1986, 10, 295. [22] D. Demus, Liq. Cryst. 1989, 5, 75 and references cited therein. [23] J. Charvolin and A. Tardieu, Solid State Phys. Suppl. 1978, 14, 209. [24] a) N. V. Bykova, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 1992, 108, 349-507; b) N.

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