By Ralf H. Dahm, Derek M. Brewis
Fluorinated polymers have a couple of very worthy homes reminiscent of first-class chemical resistance. in spite of the fact that, they're often tough to bond and not using a pretreatment. There are exceptions and untreated poly(vinylidene fluoride), for instance, will be effectively bonded with an amine-cured epoxide. the simplest the right way to pretreat absolutely fluorinated polymers have been built within the Fifties. a lot paintings, in particular on electrochemical and plasma remedies, has given that been conducted yet up to now those haven't proved as potent because the early tools. partly fluorinated polymers could be handled like polyolefins, for instance, flame, and plasma remedies are very powerful. Aqueous and alcoholic strategies of workforce I hydroxides also are very powerful. Fluoropolymers delivers a mixture of houses together with hot temperature resistance, very good resistance to many chemical compounds and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, fireplace resistance and coffee friction. Fluoropolymers are quite dear and they're mostly utilized in specialized functions equivalent to linings for chemical plant, spacecraft coatings which are proof against atomic oxygen, fire-resistant coatings for cables, and naturally, non-stick features. There are greater than twenty varied fluoropolymers which are commercially to be had. reliable adhesion is needed in a couple of applied sciences concerning fluoropolymers together with adhesive bonding, portray, printing, metallisation (via vacuum or answer) and composite construction. although, totally fluorinated polymers reminiscent of PTFE and FEP are notoriously tough to stick to, whereas in part fluorinated polymers similar to PVDF and PVF could cause difficulties reckoning on the conditions. to accomplish a passable point of adhesion, it's always essential to perform a pretreatment with either totally and partly fluorinated polymers. during this evaluation the foundations of adhesion are thought of first (Section 2). options that experience vastly elevated our knowing of adhesion to fluoropolymers are defined in part three. situations the place reliable adhesion is accomplished with no pretreatment are tested in part four. although, as pretreatments are typically had to get the necessary point of adhesion, this assessment is especially interested in the big variety of equipment to be had to pretreat fluoropolymers (Section 5). A common dialogue and conclusions stick with. This Rapra assessment file includes a concise, professional overview, supported via an intensive bibliography compiled from the Polymer Library related to adhesion to fluoropolymers. This bibliography presents more information in this topical box. This assessment may be of curiosity either to people who already use fluoropolymers and people who are contemplating utilizing them.
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Extra info for Adhesion to Fluoropolymers
The changes in chemistry are summarised in Table 17. It can be seen the smallest chemical changes occur with the O2 and CF4 plasmas. On the other hand, an oxygen plasma gave the greatest topographical change. 3 Flame Treatment As noted earlier, flame treatment is an example of plasma treatment. Mathieson and co-workers (215) showed that large increases in adhesion could be achieved by flame treating PVF and ECTFE (Table 18). 0 2980 *For a bonded area of 20 mm wide x 10 mm long, a two-part epoxide was used actual decrease in bond strength.
Data are presented for the attachment of styrene-pentafluorostyrene copolymers and polyvinyl pyridine to the surfaces of PTFE. 9 refs. 2 DAIKIN’S NEW FLUORORESIN ENSURES DIRECT BONDING TO METALS, PLASTICS It is briefly reported that Daikin Industries has developed a fluororesin that can directly bond to other materials such as metals and engineering plastics. Adhesion strength towards nylon is said to be 8 times that of conventional fluororesins. The new resin is Neoflon EFEP (ethyleneperfluoro-ethylene-propene) copolymer.
The maximum values of about 120 N/cm2 are very low. Full details of the bonding procedure are not given, but it appears that the flexible laminate was not reinforced and therefore peeling, rather than shear, forces would dominate, leading to low adhesion values. Inagaki and co-workers (273) studied the effect of NH3 plasma treatment at 20 kHz using contact angle measurements, XPS and ATR-FTIR. The hydrophilicity of the surface was measured, water contact angles as low as 16° being observed. A combination of XPS and ATR showed that extensive defluorination had occurred and this was accompanied by the formation of carbonyl and amide groups.